“Water, Rest & Shade” – “Working Outdoors & Indoors In High Temperature Conditions”



The body normally cools itself by sweating. During hot weather, especially with high humidity, sweating isn’t enough. Body temperature can rise to dangerous levels if you don’t drink enough water and rest in the shade. You can suffer from heat exhaustion or heat stroke.

In 2014 alone, 2,630 workers suffered from heat illness and 18 died from heat stroke and related causes on the job. Heat illnesses and deaths are preventable.

Employers must protect workers from excessive heat.

Under OSHA law, employers are responsible for providing workplaces free of known safety hazards. This includes protecting workers from extreme heat. An employer with workers exposed to high temperatures should establish a complete heat illness prevention program.

  • Provide workers with water, rest and shade.
  • Allow new or returning workers to gradually increase workloads and take more frequent breaks as they acclimatize, or build a tolerance for working in the heat.
  • Plan for emergencies and train workers on prevention.
  • Monitor workers for signs of illness.


Heat Exhaustion

Dizziness Dizziness
Headache Headache
Sweaty Skin Sweaty Skin
Weakness Weakness
Cramps Cramps
Nausea, vomiting Nausea, vomiting
Fast heart beat Fast heart beat

Heat Stroke

Red, hot, dry skin Red, hot, dry skin
High temperature High temperature
Confusion Confusion

To prevent heat related illness and fatalities:

  • Drink water every 15 minutes, even if you are not thirsty.
  • Rest in the shade to cool down.
  • Wear a hat and light-colored clothing.
  • Learn the signs of heat illness and what to do in an emergency.
  • Keep an eye on fellow workers.
  • “Easy does it” on your first days of work in the heat. You need to get used to it.

Working in full sunlight can increase heat index values by 15 degrees Fahrenheit. Keep this in mind and plan additional precautions for working in these conditions.

Who is affected?

Any worker exposed to hot and humid conditions is at risk of heat illness, especially those doing heavy work tasks or using bulky protective clothing and equipment. Some workers might be at greater risk than others if they have not built up a tolerance to hot conditions, including new workers, temporary workers, or those returning to work after a week or more off. All workers are at risk during a heat wave.

Industries most affected by heat-related illness are: construction; trade, transportation and utilities; agriculture; building, grounds maintenance; landscaping services; and support activities for oil and gas operations.

What to do if a worker becomes ill?

  • Call a supervisor for help. If a supervisor is not available, call 911.
  • Have someone stay with the worker until help arrives.

Educational Resources:
Fact Sheets / Posters / Training Material

To view and/or order heat-related documents, visit OSHA’s Publications page. Clicking “order now” will place the item in a virtual cart on the right side of the screen. To order multiple copies, please call 1-800-321-OSHA (6742).

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Illustrated, Low-Literacy Fact Sheets

Construction and Agriculture: Available in English (PDF*) and Spanish (PDF*)**

Oil & Gas and Construction: Available in English (PDF*) and Spanish (PDF*)**

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Worksite Training Poster

Educational Poster to be used for training on heat illness symptoms and prevention.

Available in English (PDF*) and Spanish (PDF*)**

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Community Poster

Awareness poster with heat illness prevention messages and OSHA contact information.

Available in English (PDF*) and Spanish (PDF*)**

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OSHA Heat Illness Prevention Training Guide

A guide for employers to carry out heat safety training, with lesson plans (tailgate or toolbox talks).

Available in English (PDF*) and Spanish (PDF*)

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Using the Heat Index: A Guide for Employers

Guide to planning for heat at the workplace and taking precautions based on heat index.

Available in English (PDF*) and Spanish (PDF*)

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Heat Stress QuickCard™

Small, double-sided card to learn what precautions to take.

Available in English (PDF*), Spanish (PDF*) and in Vietnamese (PDF*)

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Outreach Wallet Card

Two-sided business card with message on one side and heat illness symptoms on the other. QR Code links to OSHA Heat Illness Prevention Website to access more materials.

Can be kept in wallet to use in event of an emergency and great to hand out at worksites.

Available in English (PDF*) and Spanish (PDF*) and NEW Portuguese (PDF*)

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OSHA’s Heat Smartphone App

App calculates heat index for current location and provides guidance to prevent illness.

Additional Resources for Workers and Employers

Protecting Workers from the Effects of Heat Fact Sheet (PDF*). OSHA Fact Sheet (Publication 3743), (August 2014).

Protecting Workers from Heat Illness (PDF*). OSHA-NIOSH Heat Illness Info Sheet, (2011).

Occupational Heat Exposure. OSHA Safety and Health Topics Page.

Protecting Yourself From Heat Stress. NIOSH Fast Facts (Publication 2010-114), (April 2010).

Heat Stress. NIOSH Workplace Safety and Health Topics.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) about Extreme Heat. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Emergency Preparedness and Response.

Beat the Heat: Heat Safety Resources. National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration’s (NOAA) National Weather Service.

California Campaign to Protect Outdoor Workers From Heat Illness.*** Cal/OSHA.

Heat Illness Prevention.*** Cal/OSHA, Division of Occupational Safety and Health (DOSH).

Heat Illness Prevention eTool.*** Cal/OSHA.

Quick Facts for Employees (PDF) (English and Spanish). Oregon OSHA (QF-008 OR-OSHA).

Outdoor Heat Exposure (OHE, Heat Stress).*** Washington State Department of Labor and Industries.

Website and “Don’t Fry Day”. National Council on Skin Cancer Prevention (NCSCP).

Sun Safety. Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Skin Cancer.

**These resources were adapted from California OSHA’s heat campaign materials.

***NOTE: California and Washington state have their own heat illness prevention standards; these materials reflect the requirements in those standards.

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